Conclusion to Section 6

GM crops offer no effective or sustainable solutions to climate change. Tolerance to extreme weather conditions is a complex trait that cannot be inserted into plants through genetic engineering. Most GM crops planted worldwide depend on large amounts of herbicides, which in turn require large amounts of fossil fuels in manufacture. GM crops, like all chemically-farmed crops, also depend on energy-hungry and greenhouse-gas-emitting nitrogen fertilizer. No GM nitrogen-use-efficient crops are available on the market.

In contrast, conventional breeding, sometimes helped by marker assisted breeding, is far ahead of GM in developing climate-ready and nitrogen-use-efficient crops. Additional means to cope with climate change include the many locally-adapted seeds conserved by farmers across the world and agroecological soil, water, and nitrogen management systems.

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